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Cold environments      Get your reading sheets here

The global distribution of cold environments polar (land and marine based), alpine, glacial and periglacial.

Glaciers as systems glacial budgets and Ice movement - internal deformation, rotational, compressional, extensional and basal sliding; warm and cold based glaciers.

Glacial processes and landscape development.

Glacier Erosion and deposition landforms

Alpine Glacial environments

Fluvioglacial processes the role of melt water erosion and deposition.

Fluvioglacial landforms melt water channels, kames, eskers and outwash plains.

Periglacial processes nivation, permafrost formation, frost heave, solifluction.

Periglacial landforms nivation hollows, ice wedges, patterned ground, pingos and solifluction lobes.

Exploitation and development in tundra areas

Exploitation of the Southern Ocean.