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Contemporary conflicts and challenges

The geographical basis of conflict

Nature and origin of conflict: identity (nationalism, regionalism, localism), ethnicity, culture; resources including territory; ideology.

Patterns of conflict: national, regional, local.

Expression of conflict: non-violent, political activity, debate, terrorism, insurrection, war.

Conflict resolution.

Conflict over the use of a local resource (e.g. land, buildings, space)

The reason for the conflict, and the attitudes of different groups of people to the conflict.

The processes which operate to resolve the conflict.

Recognition that some people benefit, whereas others may lose, when the outcome is decided.

The geographical impact of international conflicts

The social, economic and environmental issues associated with major international conflicts that have taken place within the last 30 years. The examination of one or more case studies. For example, in the first decade of the 21st century, this could include an examination of international conflicts such as those in:

the Middle East


the Darfur region of Sudan.

The challenge of multicultural societies in the UK

Reasons for the development of multicultural societies.

The geographical distribution of cultural groupings.

Issues related to multicultural societies.

Separatism within and/or across national boundaries

The nature of separatism.

Reasons for separatism.

Consequences of separatism.

The challenge of global poverty

The global distribution of poverty.

Causes of poverty.

Addressing poverty on a global scale, including the work by international agencies such as the United Nations.

The issue: "No development without security, and no security without development"