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Cold Environments

3.1.4.1 Glaciers as natural systems
Glacial Systems in physical geography
The concepts of landform and landscape and how related landforms combine to form characteristic landscapes.

3.1.4.2     The nature and distribution of cold environments
The global distribution of cold environments.
Physical characteristics of cold environments.
The global distribution of past and present cold environments (polar, alpine, glacial and periglacial) and of areas affected by the Pleistocene glaciations.

3.1.4.3     Systems and processes
Glacial systems including glacial budgets.
Ablation and accumulation – historical patterns of ice advance and retreat.
Warm and cold based glaciers: characteristics and development.
Geomorphological processes
Fluvioglacial processes
Periglacial features and processes: permafrost, active layer and mass movement.

3.1.4.4     Glaciated landscape development
This content must include study of a variety of landscapes from beyond the UK and may also include UK examples.
Origin and development of glaciated landscapes.
Erosional and depositional landforms
Characteristic glaciated landscapes.
Origin and development of landforms and landscapes of glacial deposition
Fluvioglacial landforms of erosion and deposition
Periglacial landforms
The relationship between process, time, landforms and landscapes in glaciated settings


3.1.4.5     Human impacts on cold environments
Concept of environmental fragility.
Human impacts on fragile cold environments over time and at a variety of scales.
Recent and prospective impact of climate change.
Management of cold environments at present and in alternative possible futures.

3.1.4.7     Case studies
Case study(ies) of glaciated environment(s) at a local scale
Case study of a contrasting glaciated landscape from beyond the UK

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