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Nigerian International aid and trade

ITrade and aid in Nigeria, a NEE

Nigeria is Africa’s largest economy, but it is not a rich or equal country. Oil exports provided £30.9 billion of government money in 2012, but per person this brings in only £183 per year.  The fact is that Nigeria is still heavily reliant upon foreign aid.

The issues in Nigeria
The country is Africa’s most populated, with an estimated 170 million people. New estimates show that approximately 60 million people live below the national poverty line, and a further 60 million people live not far above it.

More than 60% of those living in poverty are in the north and more than three quarters are estimated to be in rural areas.

Wealth distribution in Nigeria

Other issues include
• Nigeria now has 15% of the world’s children out of school and 10% of the world’s child and maternal deaths.
• Many girls and women are excluded from opportunities: only about 57% of girls in northern Nigeria attend primary school, and less than 1 in 4 moves on to secondary school.
• Businesses lack access to regular electricity supply
• Lack of financial services limits people’s ability to start businesses
• Agriculture is the main job for many but it is not very productive so Nigeria has to import food
• Terrorism occurs in the North, with Boko Haram making repeated attacks since 2012
• There are outbreaks of violence and protest in the Niger delta to the south based around access to oil wealth


Poverty in Nigeria


Trade is essential to help Nigeria develop. Nigeria in 2018 had a POSITIVE trade balance – it exported $10.8 Billion more than it imported. Its main trade partners are the European Union countries, China, India and the USA. It exports a lot of raw materials and imports manufactured goods. You can see this on the graphs below or explore the data at this brilliant website

Importsto Nigeria

Nigeria exports

International aid: types of aid, impacts of aid on the receiving country

Aid to Nigeria – what the UK does to help
In 2013 the UK became the first G7 country to meet the United Nations target of spending 0.7% of gross national income on international development via aid. 

The Department for International Development of the UK Government believe that a “peaceful, more democratic and prosperous Nigeria, meeting the basic needs of its citizens, is possible within a generation.” This is where it has focussed its aid.

Nigeria will get £1.14 billion of UK overseas aid over the five years from 2013


How UK aid money is spent in Nigeria

Development area Indicator How successful? (2013-2014) Cost (2014-15)
Governance  Number of people voting in Nigeria’s national elections 40 million people voted in the 2011 election, 5 million  more than in the last election £71.6 million (includes security too)
Wealth Creation 

Number of poor people whose income increase by between 15% and 50% due to DFID projects.


Number of people with access to formal financial services.

515,708 poor people with incomes raised above15% estimated 98,000 women.


10m more people have access of which 4.1m are women.


Number of births delivered with skilled health personnel in targeted sites in northern Nigeria.


Number of insecticide treated malaria nets distributed with DFID support.

500,000 delivered



10 million nets given out

£100 million
Education Number of additional children receiving education in Nigeria.  481,000 additional children (48% girls) 30.8 million
Water and Sanitation Number of people using safer water and living in open-defecation free villages as a result of DFID support. 5.5 million (50% girls and women) £6.9 million
Poverty and Vulnerability Number of pregnant women and unique under five children reached by DFID supported nutrition programmes in northern Nigeria. 4.3 million women and pregnant mothers. £3.8 million

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