How sand dunes are created
Sand dunes are accumulations of sand and other sized sediments that gather on a beach. Sand dunes are created around obstacles on the beach, these could be natural such as a rock or human things such as some waste drift wood or a fence.
The sea brings sediment to the beach and then the wind redistributes that sediment. When the wind encounters the beach obstacles velocity falls and sediment is DEPOSITED. This makes amount of sand or sediment at the front of the sand dune system, known as an EMBRYO dune.
Over time, tough plants known as PIONEERS such as Marram grass take root on the dune, their root systems helping to stabilise the sand and fix it in place.
As these plants die off they add nutrients and humus to the sand dune improving the soil, so more complex plants can move in, such as brambles.
Eventually, the climatic climax vegetation is reached, which in the UK would be forest.
How Marram Grass copes in a sand dune environment:
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